Blockchain Interoperability: Exploring Layer 2, Swaps, Bridges and Interconnected Ecosystems

AKB Team

Blockchain technology has been a game-changer, transforming industries with its decentralized and transparent frameworks. Yet, as multiple blockchains sprout up—each with its own unique set of features and protocols—the challenge of enabling smooth communication between these disparate systems has intensified. This article delves into the intricacies of blockchain interoperability and examines key solutions like Layer 2 Protocols, Swaps, Bridges, and Interconnected Ecosystems that aim to bolster connectivity among diverse blockchain networks.

What is Blockchain Interoperability

The term “blockchain interoperability” refers to the capability of different blockchain systems to interact, share data, and collaborate seamlessly. As the blockchain landscape continues to expand and diversify, achieving blockchain interoperability has become a pressing issue. A myriad of strategies and initiatives are currently in the works to tackle this obstacle, setting the stage for a more unified and interconnected blockchain environment.

The Need for Interoperability

Isolated blockchain networks pose challenges in terms of data and value silos, limiting market sizes, liquidity, and overall efficiency. To truly transform industries, these networks need to interoperate, ensuring data and value flow seamlessly across them.

These are some of the real-world examples illustrating the importance of blockchain interoperability.

  1. International Trade Processes and the Need for Interconnected Networks:

Interconnected networks can streamline international trade processes, reducing counterparty risks and the need for lengthy dispute resolutions, and solutions like Cosmos aim to create an “Internet of Blockchains,” allowing different blockchains to interoperate and share tokens and other assets.

In international trade, this could mean that a blockchain used for tracking shipments could seamlessly interact with a financial blockchain for payments, reducing counterparty risks and speeding up transactions.

  1. The Link Between Trade Logistics and Trade Finance:

Seamless data sharing between trade logistics and finance can ensure authenticity, building trust among parties. For example, Polkadot, a multi-chain interoperability platform, enables different blockchains to transfer messages and value in a trust-free fashion.

This can bridge the gap between trade logistics and finance, allowing for seamless data sharing and ensuring the authenticity of transactions, thereby building trust among parties.

  1. The Role of Data Sharing in Ensuring Authenticity and Trust:

Data sharing across networks can validate transactions, ensuring their authenticity and building trust among participants. Solutions like Wanchain aim to build a super financial market by connecting distinct digital assets.

Its cross-chain functionality can validate transactions across different blockchains, ensuring their authenticity and building trust among participants.

Key Solutions to Blockchain Interoperability

Apart from the three solutions mentioned in the examples above, here you can find these and more key solutions designed to address interoperability challenges and enhance connectivity across various blockchain networks.

Key Solutions to Blockchain Interoperability

1. Layer 2 Protocols

Layer 2 protocols serve as scalability solutions that are built on top of existing blockchains, known as Layer 1. These protocols aim to address scalability challenges and enhance transaction performance by enabling off-chain operations, thereby reducing the burden on the main blockchain. The two primary types of Layer 2 solutions are state channels and sidechains, both of which are instrumental in achieving scalability and promoting interoperability.

  • State Channels: State channels permit users to conduct transactions directly with each other off-chain, recording only the final outcome on the main blockchain. This method considerably accelerates transaction speed and alleviates congestion on the main chain. Noteworthy examples include the Lightning Network for Bitcoin and the Raiden Network for Ethereum.
  • Sidechains: Sidechains are independent blockchains that are connected to the main blockchain. They allow users to swiftly and affordably transfer assets between the main chain and the sidechains. Furthermore, sidechains can be interconnected, enabling cross-chain asset transfers and enhancing overall interoperability. Examples include Liquid for Bitcoin and Plasma for Ethereum.

2. Swaps: Enabling Cross-Chain Asset Exchange

Swaps are mechanisms that facilitate the exchange of one cryptocurrency or token for another within the same or different blockchains. Atomic swaps, a specialized form of swaps, allow for direct peer-to-peer exchanges between different blockchains without requiring intermediaries.

  • Atomic Swaps: Atomic swaps utilize smart contracts to guarantee a secure and trustless exchange between two parties. For example, an atomic swap could facilitate a direct exchange of Bitcoin for Ethereum, bypassing the need for centralized exchanges.

3. Bridges: Linking Blockchain Ecosystems

Bridges act as connectors between two or more blockchains, enabling the transfer of assets across different chains. Through the use of smart contracts or specialized protocols, bridges lock assets on one blockchain while generating equivalent representations on another, thus allowing for seamless asset movement.

  • Interchain Bridges: Interchain bridges facilitate the transfer of assets between distinct blockchains. A real-world example is the bridge between Ethereum and Binance Smart Chain, which allows users to employ the same assets across both platforms for various applications. Numerous decentralized applications (DApps) also function as bridges, such as or software wallets like MetaMask.

4. Interconnected Ecosystems: Project Initiatives

Several projects and initiatives focus on solving the challenges of blockchain interoperability, with the goal of establishing ecosystems of interconnected blockchains.

  • Polkadot: Introduces a multi-chain interoperability platform using parachains connected to a relay chain, enhancing flexibility for specific use cases.
  • Cosmos: Aims to create an “Internet of Blockchains” by connecting diverse blockchains through a hub-and-spoke model, facilitating the creation of interlinked and interoperable ecosystems.
  • Avalanche: Focuses on scalability and interoperability, employing the Avalanche Consensus protocol to enable efficient cross-chain operations. It supports a variety of decentralized applications, encouraging collaborative efforts.
  • ICON: Strives to connect blockchains through its ICON Nexus interoperability protocol, enabling both value and data exchange within the ICON ecosystem. The ultimate goal is to establish a seamless “metaverse” of interconnected blockchains.
  • Wanchain: Addresses both interoperability and data privacy, using wrapped tokens to enable asset transfers between different blockchains. The aim is to create a unified ecosystem for data and resource sharing.
  • Chainlink: Operates as a decentralized oracle network, enhancing interoperability by supplying secure and reliable data feeds to smart contracts across various blockchains. By linking blockchains to real-world data, Chainlink allows decentralized applications (dApps) to make informed decisions based on external information, thereby expanding the range of blockchain applications.


Blockchain interoperability is undeniably pivotal for the future trajectory of blockchain technology. It envisions a world where diverse blockchains can seamlessly converse, allowing for the fluid exchange of data and assets. This not only paves the way for groundbreaking applications and solutions but also fosters a more integrated and cohesive digital ecosystem.

Incorporating the advancements of platforms like Astrakode further underscores the significance of interoperability. AstraKode, a web-based low-code platform, is revolutionizing the blockchain development landscape. It empowers both companies and blockchain professionals to construct enterprise blockchains and smart contracts without the intricacies of extensive coding.

With platforms like AstraKode, businesses can effortlessly and affordably adapt to the blockchain-driven future, leveraging the benefits of enhanced security, transparency, and efficiency. By accelerating blockchain development, AstraKode is not just a tool but a catalyst, driving innovation and fostering a community that supports peer learning and collaboration.

In conclusion, as blockchain technology continues its upward trajectory, the emphasis on creating interconnected, interoperable networks will be paramount. The innovations brought forth by solutions like Layer 2 Protocols, Swaps, Bridges, and Interconnected Ecosystems are just the beginning, and the future holds immense promise for a truly interconnected blockchain ecosystem. As blockchain technology continues its upward trajectory, blockchain interoperability will undeniably be at its heart, shaping its widespread adoption and overarching success.


  1. Cointelegraph – What is Blockchain Interoperability: A Beginner’s Guide To Cross-Chain Technology
  2. Forbes – Blockchain Interoperability: The Tab-Switching of Web 3.0
  3. GSMA – Blockchain Interoperability and Its Relevance
  4. Lisk – Blockchain Interoperability: How Does It Work?
  5. Chainlink – Education Hub on Blockchain Interoperability
  6. Hyperledger Labs – Understanding Interoperability
  7. Springer – Blockchain Interoperability Article
  8. Blockchain technology: a new opportunity for international trade – Beyond Borders
  9. Blockchain and International Trade – CRS

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